Sensitizing Capacities and Cross-Reactivity Patterns of Some Diisocyanates and Amines Using the Guinea-Pig Maximization Test. Can p-phenylenediamine be Used as a Marker for Diisocyanate Contact Allergy?
Haneen Hamada*, Erik Zimerson, Magnus Bruze, Marléne Isaksson, Malin Engfeldt
Identifiers and Pagination:Year: 2017
First Page: 87
Last Page: 97
Publisher Id: TODJ-11-87
Article History:Received Date: 28/07/2017
Revision Received Date: 17/10/2017
Acceptance Date: 02/11/2017
Electronic publication date: 29/11/2017
Collection year: 2017
open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode). This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Isocyanates are mainly considered respiratory allergens but can also cause contact allergy. Diphenylmethane-4,4′-diamine (4,4′-MDA) has been considered a marker for diphenylmethane-4,4′-diisocyanate (4,4′-MDI) contact allergy. Furthermore, overrepresentation of positive patch-test reactions to p-phenylenediamine (PPD) in 4,4′-MDA positive patients have been reported.
To investigate the sensitizing capacities of toluene-2,4-diisocyanate (2,4-TDI) and PPD and the cross-reactivity of 4,4′-MDA, 2,4-TDI, dicyclohexylmethane-4,4′-diamine (4,4′-DMDA), dicyclohexylmethane-4,4′-diisocyanate (4,4′-DMDI), 4,4′-MDI and PPD.
The Guinea Pig Maximization Test (GPMT) was used.
PPD was shown to be a strong sensitizer (p<0.001). Animals sensitized to PPD showed cross-reactivity to 4,4′-MDA (p<0.001). Animals sensitized to 4,4′-MDA did not show cross-reactivity to PPD. 8 animals sensitized to 2,4-TDI were sacrificed due to toxic reactions at the induction site and could thus not be fully evaluated.
PPD was shown to be a strong sensitizer. However, it cannot be used as a marker for isocyanate contact allergy. On the other hand, positive reactions to 4,4′-MDA could indicate a PPD allergy. The intradermal induction concentration of 2,4-TDI (0.70% w/v) can induce strong local toxic reactions in guinea-pigs and should be lowered.