Localized Scleroderma: Predisposing and Triggering Factors

Irina Khamaganova*
Pirogov Russian National Medical University, 2 Krestovsky 8, 31, Moscow, Russia

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© Irina Khamaganova; Licensee Bentham Open

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial 4.0 International Public License (CC BY-NC 4.0) (, which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Pirogov Russian National Medical University, 2 Krestovsky 8, 31, Moscow, Russia; Tel: +7 985 998 44 81; Fax: +7 495 770-09-51; E-mails:,


The etiology of localized scleroderma remains unclear. The objective of this article is to review different theories of etiology, specifically provocative and predisposing factors for the development of localized scleroderma. The mini-review presents the factors, which may influence the occurrence of localized scleroderma. The genetic predisposition for the development of scleroderma is a relevant characteristic of the disease. Different traumatic factors, viral & bacterial infections, chemical substances, pharmaceutical agents may trigger localized scleroderma. Neoplasia is regarded as a distinct triggering impulse for scleroderma.

Keywords: Chemical agents, Etiology, Genetics, Infections, Localized scleroderma, Malignancy.