Detection of TGF-β1, HGF, IGF-1 and IGF-1R in Cleft Affected Mucosa of the Lip

Elga Sidhom*, Mara Pilmane
Institute of Anatomy and Anthropology, Riga Stradins University, Riga, Latvia

© 2017 Sidhom and Pilmane.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: ( This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Institute of Anatomy and Anthropology, Riga Stradins University, Kronvalda blvd. 9, Riga, LV-1010, Latvia; Tel: +371 29336041; Fax: +371 67320862; E-mail:



Orofacial clefts are one of the most common birth defects with multifactorial and only partly understood morphopathogenesis.


The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of TGF-β1, HGF, IGF-1 and IGF-1R in cleft affected mucosa of the lip.


Lip mucosa tissue samples were obtained during surgical cleft correction from seven 2 to 6 months old children. Prepared tissue sections were stained by immunohistochemistry for TGF-β1, HGF, IGF-1 and IGF-1R. The intensity of staining was graded semiquantitatively.


We found numerous TGF-β1 and HGF-containing epithelial and connective tissue cells, moderate number of IGF-1 immunoreactive cells and even less pronounced presence of IGF-1R-positive cells.


TGF-β1 and HGF are present in defective epithelia and soft tissue in cleft affected lip. Expressions of IGF-1 and IGF-1R show significant differences, and both factors play a role in the morphopathogenesis of clefts.

Keywords: TGF-β1, HGF, IGF-1, IGF-1R, Cleft, Orofacial defects, Lip mucosa.