RESEARCH ARTICLE


Detection of TGF-β1, HGF, IGF-1 and IGF-1R in Cleft Affected Mucosa of the Lip



Elga Sidhom*, Mara Pilmane
Institute of Anatomy and Anthropology, Riga Stradins University, Riga, Latvia


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© 2017 Sidhom and Pilmane.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode). This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Institute of Anatomy and Anthropology, Riga Stradins University, Kronvalda blvd. 9, Riga, LV-1010, Latvia; Tel: +371 29336041; Fax: +371 67320862; E-mail: Elga.Sidhoma@rsu.lv


Abstract

Background:

Orofacial clefts are one of the most common birth defects with multifactorial and only partly understood morphopathogenesis.

Objective:

The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of TGF-β1, HGF, IGF-1 and IGF-1R in cleft affected mucosa of the lip.

Methods:

Lip mucosa tissue samples were obtained during surgical cleft correction from seven 2 to 6 months old children. Prepared tissue sections were stained by immunohistochemistry for TGF-β1, HGF, IGF-1 and IGF-1R. The intensity of staining was graded semiquantitatively.

Results:

We found numerous TGF-β1 and HGF-containing epithelial and connective tissue cells, moderate number of IGF-1 immunoreactive cells and even less pronounced presence of IGF-1R-positive cells.

Conclusion:

TGF-β1 and HGF are present in defective epithelia and soft tissue in cleft affected lip. Expressions of IGF-1 and IGF-1R show significant differences, and both factors play a role in the morphopathogenesis of clefts.

Keywords: TGF-β1, HGF, IGF-1, IGF-1R, Cleft, Orofacial defects, Lip mucosa.