Assessment of Cutibacterium acnes: Acne Biofilm, Comedones, and Future Treatments for Acne

Craig G. Burkhart1 , * Open Modal Authors Info & Affiliations
The Open Dermatology Journal 29 Feb 2024 REVIEW ARTICLE DOI: 10.2174/0118743722279314240219091938


Cutibacterium acnes (C.acnes) is a skin commensal organism that controls the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. Additionally, the organism can become an opportunistic pathogen, causing acne and post-surgical prosthetic infections. The outcome of acne depends on Cutibacterium subtypes, virulence factors, and microbial equilibrium. This organism makes a biological glue that is essential for biofilm formation, but its overabundance makes its way into the sebum. This sebum slowly reaches the upper layer of the hair unit along with dead cells from the keratinocyte layer, causing comedones. Treatments in the pipeline include tumor necrosis factors (biologics), various agents attacking biofilm viability, phage therapy, and vaccinations against virulence factors produced by C. acnes.

Keywords: Acne, Cutibacterium acnes, Acne biofilm, Treatment, Phage therapy, Acne vaccinations.
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